Internet Service Provider :
An Internet service provider (ISP), also sometimes referred to as an internet access provider (IAP) , is a company that offers its customers access to the internet. The isp connects to its customers using a data transmission technology appropriate for delivering internet protocol packets or frames, such as dial-up, DSL, cable modem , wireless or dedicated high-speed interconnects.
End User to ISP Connection :
ISP employ many technologies for users to connect to their network such as-
DSL( Digital Subscriber line)
Integrated service digital network (ISDN)
Milestone Is an internet service provider (ISP) company:
Fusion splicing machine is the act of joining two optical fibers end-to-end using heat. The goal is to fuse the two fibers together in such a way that light passing through the fibers is not scattered or reflected back by the splice, and so that the splice and the region surrounding it are almost as strong as the virgin fiber itself. The source of heat is usually an electric arc, but can also be a laser, or a gas flame, or a tungsten filament through which current is passed.
Optical power meter measures power in an optical signal
An OTDR is the optical equivalent of an electronic time domain reflectometer. It injects a series of optical pulses into the fiber under test and extracts, from the same end of the fiber, light that is scattered (Rayleigh backscatter) or reflected back from points along the fiber.
OTDR : OTDR Optical Time Domain Reflectometer
An Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) is an important instrument used by organizations to certify the performance of new fiber optics links and detect problems
with existing fiber links. OTDRs are also used for maintaining fiber plant performance. An OTDR allows you to see more detail impacted by the cabling installation. An OTDR maps the cabling and can illustrate termination quality, location of faults. An OTDR provides advanced diagnostics to isolate a point of failure that may hinder network performance. An OTDR allows discovery of issues along the length of a channel that may affect long term reliability. OTDRs characterize features such as attenuation uniformity and attenuation rate, segment length, location and insertion loss of connectors and splices, and other events such as sharp bends that may have been incurred during cable installation.
The Common types of OTDR Like Tester equipment are:
Hand-Held OTDR and Fiber break locator:
Hand-held (formerly mini) OTDRs and fiber break locators are designed to troubleshoot fiber networks in a field environment, often using battery power. The two types of instruments cover the spectrum of approaches to fiber optic plant taken by communication providers. Hand-held, inexpensive OTDRs are intended to be easy-to-use, light-weight, sophisticated OTDRs that collect field data and perform rudimentary data analysis. They may be less feature rich than full-feature OTDRs. Often they can be used in conjunction with PC-based software to perform data collection and sophisticated data analysis. Hand-held OTDRs are commonly used to measure fiber links and locate fiber breaks, points of high loss, high reflectance, end-to-end loss, and Optical Return Loss (ORL). Fiber break locators are intended to be low-cost instruments specifically designed to determine the location of a catastrophic fiber event, e.g., fiber break, point of high reflectance, or high loss. The fiber break locator is an opto-electronic tape measure designed to measure only distance to catastrophic fiber events.In general, hand-held OTDRs and fiber break locators are lighter and smaller, simpler to operate, and more likely to employ battery power than full-feature OTDRs. The intent with hand-held OTDRs and fiber break locators is to be inexpensive enough for field technicians to be equipped with one as part of a standard tool kit.
RTU in RFTSs:
The RTU is the testing module of the RFTS described in Generic Requirements for Remote Fiber Testing Systems (RFTSS). An RFTS enables fiber to be automatically tested from a central location. A central computer is used to control the operation of OTDR-like test components located at key points in the fiber network. The test components scan the fiber to locate problems. If a problem is found, its location is noted and the appropriate personnel are notified to begin the repair process. The RFTS can also provide direct access to a database that contains historical information of the OTDR fiber traces and any other fiber records for the physical fiber plant. Since OTDRs and OTDR-like equipment have many uses in the communications industry, operating environments vary widely, both indoors and outdoors. Most often, however, these test sets are operated in controlled environments, accessing the fibers at their termination points on fiber distribution frames. Indoor environments include controlled areas such as central offices (COs), equipment huts, or Controlled Environment Vaults (CEVs). Use in outside environments is rarer, but may include use in a manhole, aerial platform, open trench, or splicing vehicle.
Benefit of laser light communication
"The benefit of a laser-based network is the increased volume that comes from Optical versus [Radio Frequency] RF. You can get approximately 1,000 times more data capacity in an optical frequency band than you can with an RF system," Splitter:
A fiber optic splitter, also known as a beam splitter, is based on a quartz substrate of an integrated waveguide optical power distribution device, similar to a coaxial cable transmission system. The optical network system also needs to be an optical signal coupled to the branch distribution. The fiber optic splitter is one of the most important passive devices in the optical fiber link, is optical fiber tandem device with many input terminals and many output terminals, especially applicable to a passive optical network (EPON,GPON, BPON, FTTX, FTTH etc.)
Splicing machine :
Milestone ISP works in 2f , 4f , 6f , 12f , 24 , 96f , 248f cable and also evolved maintain in ribbon fiber technology.
Our team have much experience of fiber maintenance long distance and short distance we have more than three year experience for fiber technologies.
Our team is very fluent technical this field.
ISP Interconnection :
Just as heir customers pay them for internet access, ISPs themselves pay upstream ISPs for internet access.
An upstream ISP usually has a larger network than the contracting ISP and/or is able to provide the contracting ISP with access to parts of the internet the contracting ISP by itself has no access to.
Splicing machine :
Fixed Line Narrowband
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)
Fixed Line Broadband
DSL (ADSL , SDSL)
Cable and Hybrid Fiber (DOCSIS , FTTC , G. fast)
Power line Communications
Fixed Wireless Access (WiFi , Wi MAX)
Mobile Broadband (3G , 4G , 5G)
Broadband Fiber Optic:
True fiber optic lines are made of glass (silica) or plastic and allow information to be transmitted in the form of visible light (e.g. a low powered laser beam). At its most simple this is a bit like using a torch to send an S-O-S (help) message to your friend next door by switching the light on and off, except the beam would be going down a cable
True Fiber Optic Technologies
Fiber To The Home / Premises (FTTH/P) :Sadly coverage is often only found in urban areas (towns and cities) or niche rural deployments. This is because it requires a lot of practical and expensive work (e.g. roadwork's) to build the networks, yet the service itself is usually well priced, reliable and very flexible. However FTTH connections do sadly require their own power source and as a result any outage in your electricity supply could result in downtime. A short lived backup battery solution provides some limited protection but this usually only lasts for a few hours (2-8 hrs depending on the product).
Fiber to the Building (FTTB)
This solution is very similar to FTTH/P and as a result it's often considered to be a true fiber optic connection. But crucially FTTB still requires a small amount of internal copper or coaxial wiring because the fiber optic cable usually terminates just outside the building, which shouldn't cause a significant detriment to performance but it can still have some impact (variable).
Fiber Optic Advantages
Ultrafast symmetric speeds.
Low latency network.
Fiber Optic Disadvantages
Extremely expensive to deploy.
Takes a long time to deploy (street works).
National roll-outs usually need state aid support (difficult)
Computer Networks and Internets:
Access And Interconnection Technologies:
concludes the discussion of data communications by examining two facilities used in the internet
Discusses access technologies, such as dialup, DSL, and cable modems
Considers high-capacity digital circuits used in the core of the Internet
Expands the discussion of the telephone system multiplexing hierarchy
Gives examples of circuits that common carriers offer to businesses and ISPs
Focuses on the data communications aspects of the technologies by considering multiplexing and data rates
Internet connectivity options from end-user to tier 3/2 ISPs An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing and using the Internet. Internet service providers may be organized in various forms, such as commercial, community-owned, non-profit, or otherwise privately owned.Internet services typically provided by ISPs include Internet access, Internet transit, domain name registration, web hosting, Usenet service, and colocation.
Cable Modem Technologies:
A variety of wireless and wired technologies have been developed for use in the local loop
An alternative access technology that uses the wiring already in place for cable television
It is also known as Community Antenna Television (CATV)
It uses FDM to deliver TV signals over coaxial cable - CATV is not available in all countries
Coaxial cable has high bandwidth and is less susceptible to electromagnetic interference than twisted pair
CATV systems use FDM to deliver many channels In CATV the bandwidth is insufficient to handle a FDM scheme that extends a channel to each user
Using a separate channel per subscriber does not scale.